About Discipline, Punishment, Reward, Reinforcement

Discipline is an educational concept based in responsibility of the teacher to encourage and maintain appropriate and cooperative behaviors on the part of students in classroom. Discipline also as steps taken by adult to cause student to behave acceptably in school.
Reward usually related to appropriate behavior. Reward is effective only through its associations. Most of reward is similar with discipline student . But reward is not same with discipline student. Because it is also connecting to achievement. Teacher can be identify rewards that makes the children truly enjoy. Consistency in this way is important. So, rewards can be shaped to help child internalize behavioral changes that are not dependent on intrinsic rewards in the future.
Punishment is certainly an option in the overall design of classroom management, and punishment sometimes appears to be the most sensible and meaningful intervention. According to BF Skinner, punishment caused bad feelings and desire for retaliation. Punishment is effective only when it reconditions new responses to the cues for unwanted behavior. Punishment is one of discipline tools to change misbehavior student in the classroom to appropriate behavior. Discipline is a component of classroom management. So, discipline is differ from punishment.
To develop and maintain classroom routines and rules, we can adopt the four contexts of school behavior such as institutional requirements, teacher management requirements, group and peer management requirements, and developmental learning requirements. Institutional requirements may include a dress code, times of arrival and departure, breakfast or lunch procedures, playground rules, parent permission for trips and certain acitivities, codes of behavior in the halls during class transitions, and rules for behavior on school buses or with crossing guards. Teacher management requirement assigned to teacher meet their contractual obligations and the expectations of administrators, other supervisors, parents, and community. Central to meeting these requirements is effective management of an assigned group of students. Group and peer management requirements means the classroom is a social environment, and children learn from each others as well as from their teachers. Developmental learning requirements may include the child-centered approach to management emerges as a central concern. Besides, we can give rewards and punishments to develop and maintain classroom routines and rules.
Positive reinforcement can be provide with social reinforcers, activities and privileges, tangible rewards, and token. Social reinforcers such as approval, praise, attention, or physical proximity. Activities and privileges such as freedom to move around the room, use of special library books, or choice of acitivites at certain times. Tangible rewards such as objects, edibles, or certificates. Tokens to be used in a classroom economy to purchase rewards over time. Positive reinforcement should also consider fairness, spontaneous rewards, and communicate to all students about the ways to get rewards.
In teaching process, teacher likely face conflict in the classroom. When the teacher face conflict, teacher can solve it with several ways. Teacher can analyze the conflict: identifying reasonable class conditions, identifying reasonable student behaviors, analyzing current conditions through observation and accurate description, describing current conditions, targeting and prioritizing specific behaviors for change, selecting and applying intervention strategies, and evaluating and adjusting interventions. Teachers also can use action research as guide in solving their conflict. Teacher can gather data, observe, analyze, and finding out to solve conflict.

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